Animal Cell – Definition, Structure, Parts, Functions and Diagram

Definition of animal cell Animals are a large group of diverse living organisms that make up to three-quarters of all species on earth. With their ability to move, to respond to stimuli, respond to environmental changes and adapt to different modes of feeding defense mechanisms and reproduction, all these mechanisms are enhanced by their constituent … Read more Animal Cell – Definition, Structure, Parts, Functions and Diagram

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020)

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (Updated 2020)

Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020) Source of Ranking: Journal Citation Reports (Clarivate Analytics) Journal Logo Source: Respective Journals Website. Disclaimer: Logos and informations are only used for educational purposes. If there are any copyright issues regarding the logo and information of the journal, please email us at microbenotes@gmail.com. 1. Nature Reviews … Read more Top 10 Microbiology Journals with Impact Factor (updated 2020)

Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining

Calcofluor White Staining Calcofluor white is a chemifluorescent blue dye that is nonspecifically used to bind to the beta linked-polysaccharide polymers of amoebic cysts. It functions by being able to bind to 1-3 beta and 1-4 beta polysaccharides on chitin and cellulose that is present in cell walls on fungi, plants, and algae. Due to … Read more Calcofluor White Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori's Methenamine Silver Staining

Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver (GMS) stain is a histological stain that is used majorly for the identification of carbohydrates in fungal microorganisms. This staining method was named after György Gömöri, a physician from Hungary, who developed the staining methodology. Its initial application to assess missing tissues and diseases in the liver and the rectum (Nadworny, Wang, … Read more Grocott-Gomori’s Methenamine Silver Staining

Epsilometer test (E test)

Epsilometer test (E test)

Introduction Epsilometer test (E- test) is defined as the “exponential gradient” method that determines the antimicrobial resistance of the microorganism. It is a cost-effective tool that has been developed to provide a direct quantification of antimicrobial susceptibility of microorganisms. It is a quantitative method that applies both the dilution of antibiotics and the diffusion of … Read more Epsilometer test (E test)

Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA)

Differences between DNA and RNA

Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA) Some of the differences are: S.N. Character DNA RNA 1.       Full form Deoxyribonucleic Acid  Ribonucleic Acid 2.       Location DNA is found in the nucleus, with a small amount of DNA also present in mitochondria. RNA forms in the nucleolus, and then moves to specialized regions … Read more Differences between DNA and RNA (DNA vs RNA)

Thick Blood Smear and Thin Blood Smear

Thick Blood Smear and Thin Blood Smear

Introduction A well-prepared blood smear is important to produce good results on analysis after doing a Giemsa stain, in identifying blood cells or/and demonstrating the presence of parasites in a sample. Below, we discuss the procedures for preparing both thin and thick smear for Giemsa staining technique, Importance, and applications of blood smears, in detail. … Read more Thick Blood Smear and Thin Blood Smear

Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Introduction Giemsa stain was a name adopted from a Germany Chemist scientist, for his application of a combination of reagents in demonstrating the presence of parasites in malaria. It belongs to a group of stains known as Romanowsky stains. These are neutral stains made up of a mixture of oxidized methylene blue, azure, and Eosin … Read more Giemsa Stain- Principle, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

The Gram stain was developed by Christian Gram in 1884 and modified by Hucker in 1921. The objective of Gram Stain This test differentiates the bacteria into Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria, which helps in the classification and differentiation of microorganisms. The Gram stain separates bacteria into two groups: (1) Gram-positive microorganisms that retain the primary … Read more Gram Stain- Principle, Reagents, Procedure and Result Interpretation

Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Special stains have been developed over time for identifying bacteria species, differentiating them morphologically, and even characterizing there very special features. The most common stain being Gram Staining, Acid-fast staining, endospore staining. Each of these stains aims at identifying and characterizing bacteria based on their morphologies. Albert stain is no different. Its application aim at … Read more Albert Staining- Principle, Reagents, Procedure, Results, Interpretation

Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Introduction A normal bacterial cell is known as a vegetative form of a bacterial cell. It can multiply freely when provided with conducive environmental conditions like the provision of nutrients, temperature, water, and oxygen. But some groups of bacteria, when exposed to unfavorable conditions such us, lack of nutrients, an insufficient supply of oxygen or … Read more Endospore Staining- Types, principle, procedure and Interpretation

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties An outbreak is an increased frequency of a disease above the usual rate (endemic rate) in a given population or geographic area. Usually, the cases are presumed to have a common cause or to be related to one another in some way. Image Source: Clipart Station Why should we investigate … Read more Outbreak Investigations- Objectives, Steps, Difficulties

Zebrafish Development

Zebrafish Development The teleost fish Danio rerio is commonly known as the zebrafish. It is a common small‐bodied tropical, freshwater species originally from South Asia.  The fish is a part of the Cyprinidae family, which includes carps, true minnows, barbs and related genera. The Danio genus (formerly Brachydanio) contains more than 40 related species along with the zebrafish (Danio … Read more Zebrafish Development